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الأربعاء، 16 يناير 2019

The most important syntactic terms-Part one

The most important syntactic terms-Part one

terms in syntax

1-Active sentence 

A sentence in which the NP with the agent role is the subject

Ex: Helen painted the room.


2-Adjective (A)


 A lexical category that designates a property that is applicable to the
entities named by nouns, can often take comparative and superlative endings in English, and
functions as the head of an adjective phrase

Ex: red, hearty.


3-Adverb (Adv) 


A lexical category that typically names properties that can be applied to
the actions designated by verbs

Ex: quickly,fearfully.



4-Agent 


The thematic role of the doer of an action

Ex:  Marilyn in (Marilyn fed the dolphin).


5-Auxiliary verb (Aux) 


A verb that serves as the specifier of the main verb  
Ex: was in ( was talking).


6-Complement 


A syntactic constituent that provides information about entities and
locations implied by the meaning of the head.


7-Complement clause


A sentence-like construction that is embedded within a larger
structure
Ex: that his car had been totalled in ( ferry told Mary that his car had been totalled).

8-Conjunction(Con) 


A functional category that joins two or more categories of the
same type, forming a coordinate structure
Ex: and in (a man and his dog)

.

9-Constituent 


One or more words that make up a syntactic unit 
EX: the apple in (the apple fell onto the floor).


10-Coordinate structure


A phrase that is formed by joining two (or more) categories
of the same type with a conjunction such as and or or
Ex: (those men and that woman).

11-Coordinate Structure Constraint


A constraint on transformations that
does not allow an element to be removed from a coordinate structure.


12-Coordination test 


A test used to determine if a group of words is a constituent by
joining it to another group of words with a conjunction such as and or or.


13-Deep structure 


 The structure generated by the phrase structure rules in accordance
with the subcategorization properties of the heads.


14-Degree Word (Deg)


A functional category that serves as a specifier of a
preposition or an adjective
Ex: quite in (quite tired), very in ( very near the house).


15-Determiner (Det) 


A functional category that serves as a specifier of a noun
Ex: (a,the,these).


16-Direct object 


The NP complement of a verb
Ex: a fish in (fady caught a fish).


17-Head (of a phrase)


The lexical category around which a phrasal category is built
Ex: (V is head of VP, N is head of NP, A of AP, P of PP).


18-Head (of a word)


The morpheme that determines the category of the entire word
Ex: bird in( blackbird).


19-Inversion 


A transformation that moves Aux from its position within the VP to a position
in front of the subject, formulated as:Move Aux to C.


20-Island


A constituent that does not permit extraction of a component part
Ex: a coordinated phrase like ferry and Pam).


21-Lexical category 


The word-level syntactic categories noun (N), verb (V), adjective
(A), and preposition (P).

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